Pan-African Emergence

The overthrow and banning of the Convention People’s Party (CPP) in 1966, and the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG) in 1984, lead to the emergence of the PRPAG / A-APRP(GC). Its evolution, ideologically and organizationally, since 1966, obeyed the objective and subjective conditions of the African and World Revolution. We did the best we could, with the resources, human, material and immaterial, that we could mobilize.

The A-APRP(GC) / PRPAG is the product of the relentless struggle within the Pan-African Movement for ideological clarity, a scientific and precise revolutionary objective and strategy, and for mass Pan-African socialist political organization. The A-APRP(GC) / PRPAG represents both a quantitative and qualitative development in Africa’s long and glorious history of struggle against class exploitation, national, and women’s oppression. It heralds a re-emergence of revolutionary Pan-Africanist struggle to qualify and improve the revolutionary ideology and Pan-Africanist socialist political party needed by African People to destroy capitalism, imperialism, neo-colonialism, neo-liberalism, globalization, zionism, racism, and women’s oppression and realize the African and larger International struggles for human and democratic rights, women’s rights, youth/student rights, the rights of prisoners of conscience, political prisoners and prisoners of war, for national independence, political unification, scientific socialism, and peace.

The emergence of the nationalist phase of the Pan-African Movement in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ushered in concrete efforts at building mass, All-African organizations. There was serious political and ideological struggle over the question of our correct nationalism and the role of Africa in the Pan-African struggle of African People. The African intelligentsia in every corner of the World, most reactionary, some progressive, and a minute few genuine revolutionaries, led the nationalist phase. The genuine Revolutionary African Intelligentsia, small and under attack by internal and external forces, are leading its socialist phase.

The Pan-African Movement assumed its initial modern organizational expression and form in 1900, with the convening of the Pan-African Conference spearheaded by Sylvester Williams, Bishop Henry Walters and Dr. W.E.B. DuBois; and later the Universal Negro Improvement Association organized by the Honorable Marcus Garvey, Amy Ashwood Garvey and Amy Jacques Garvey; the Pan-African Congresses organized by Dr. W.E. B. DuBois; the National Congress of British West Africa led by Joseph Casely Hayford; the Liga Africana of the Portuguese Colonies led by Jose de Magalhaes; to mention only a few of the movement-changing meetings and leading personalities of the African Revolution, worldwide.

The Fifth Pan-African Congress, organized by George Padmore, and co-chaired by Dr. W.E.B. DuBois and Kwame Nkrumah marked the beginning of a new ideological and organizational period that saw the intensification of the mass movement phase of the African Revolution with the emergence of new forms of revolutionary, mass, Pan-African political movements and parties adequate to the task of struggling for and attaining political independence. This phase emphasized mass nonviolent confrontation, Positive Action, against the colonialists and imperialists, settler-colonialists and neo-colonialists. This phase was also marked by definitive positions on the questions of capitalism and socialism.

“Whereas capitalism is a development by refinement from slavery and feudalism, socialism does not contain the fundamental ingredient of capitalism, the principle of exploitation. . .Capitalism is unjust; in our newly independent countries it is to not only too complicated to be workable, it is also foreign. In sum the restitution of Africa’s humanist and egalitarian principles of society require socialism.” (Kwame Nkrumah, Consciencism, page 73-77).

This process gained intensity and speed with the founding of the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG). in 1947 under the leadership of Ahmed Sekou Toure and M’balia Camara, and of the Convention People’s Party of Ghana (CPP) in 1949 under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah. In 13 short years, mass parties and the struggle for human rights and national liberation spread to every corner of Africa and the African Diaspora.

Four watershed events occurred in 1957 and 1958, for the first time on African soil, the gaining of independence by Ghana and Guinea, the convening of the First Conference of Independent African States by the government of Ghana, and its convening of the First All-African People’s Conference, which was, as Dr. W.E.B. DuBois proclaimed in his speech, delivered by his wife, Madame Shirley Graham DuBois at Ghana’s Independence celebration, the true Sixth Pan-African Congress.

These historic events signaled the birth of a new stage in the African Revolution. In 15 short years following the Fifth Pan-African Congress, the political situation and conditions in Africa and the African Diaspora ripened, making it possible to firmly and irrevocably root the Pan-African Movement in Africa, its only true home. The FBI-CIA (USA), PIDE (Portugal), MOSSAD (Israel), M16 (Britain), SDECE (France), and other capitalist and zionist intelligence agencies, all enemies of the African Revolution, sabotaged genuine independence gained through the direction of Revolutionary parties.

As a result of treachery of the African intelligentsia, military and civil service inside of Africa, agents of capitalism, neo-colonialism, neo-liberalism and zionism, a wave of coup d’etats, and attempted coups, led to the consolidation of neo-colonialism inside the party and the state. Coup d’etats were carried out in Senegal (1962), Togo (1963 & 1967), Brazzaville (1963), Dahomey (1963 & 1965), Niamey (1963), Tanzania (1964), Uganda (1964), Kenya (1964), Gabon (1964), Algeria (1965), Congo (1965), (Central African Republic (1965), Upper Volta (1965), Nigeria (January & July, 1966), Ghana (1966), Burundi (1966), and Sierra Leone (1967). Neo-colonialism and neo-liberalism consolidated itself through the African Diaspora as well. Coups and attempted coups continue today.

“For the African bourgeoisie, the class, which thrived under colonialism, is the same class which is benefiting under the post-independence, neo-colonial period. Its basic interest lies in preserving capitalist structures. It is therefore, in alliance with international monopoly finance capital and neocolonialism, and in direct conflict with the African Masses, whose aspirations can only be fulfilled through scientific socialism.” (Kwame Nkrumah, Class Struggle in Africa, page 11-12).

The United States, British and Israeli engineered coup in Ghana, February 24, 1966, ushered in a new phase; struggle against neo-colonialism; the last phase of imperialism. With the overthrow of the Nkrumah government in Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah was made co-President of The Republic of Guinea and Secretary General of the PDG. Under the leadership of the PDG, Ahmed Sekou Toure and Kwame Nkrumah, Guinea became the primary base of the revolutionary struggle for Pan-Africanism.

“While it would not be harmful to recognize the emergence of the racial factor in the revolutionary struggle, it must not be allowed to confuse or obscure the fundamental issue of socialist revolution, which is the class struggle. . . Socialism can only be achieved through class struggle.”

Correctly analyzing this new African and African Diaspora reality, Kwame Nkrumah suggested in The Handbook of Revolutionary Warfare, “ the need for an All-African People’s Revolutionary Party to coordinate policies and to direct action. … A political party linking all liberated territories and struggling parties under a common ideology; and thus smoothing the way for continental unity, while at the same time greatly assisting the prosecution of the All-African People’s War”. (Kwame Nkrumah, Class Struggle in Africa, page 56-57).

His independence day speech was clearer than ever and provided greater impetus to the Pan-African Movement as he so emphatically had stated, March 6, 1957, “the independence of Ghana is meaningless without the total liberation and unification of the African continent” and thus the necessity for the A-APRP(GC)) / PRPAG. Nkrumah understood that without the political unification of Africa, imperialism, through neo-colonialism, would always find a base there and Africa would remain divided. A Revolutionary Pan-Africanist socialist political party must be built to unite Africa as one.

The A-APRP(GC) / PRPAG seeks to further qualify this analysis by recognizing the need to ground the Party at the level of the People, to build it from the bottom up, especially in those areas of Africa and the African Diaspora where no mass, revolutionary, Pan-African Movement or socialist party exists. We believe that by linking Africans from all over the World into one mass, revolutionary, Pan-Africanist socialist political party, we will help lay the foundation for the linkage of progressive and revolutionary socialist African states in Africa and abroad and accelerate the destruction of neo-colonialism and achieve Pan-Africanism. Kwame Ture always educated Africans to understand that,

“Imperialism will find its grave in Africa.”

The African Revolution has reached a new phase, placing the struggle for scientific socialism in the forefront and command of the struggle for Pan-Africanism. Sham independence, and tragic and cruel illusions of Black Power, manipulated and controlled by neo-colonial agents, parties and governments, dominates the African World. Genuine independence, for Africans at Home and abroad, has only been realized through Revolution with the class struggle as its impetus and with the development of socialist states in Africa, the African Diaspora, and the World. Socialism is the only economic system that has as its primary mission fulfilling the social, political, economic, spiritual, and cultural needs of the Masses of the People rather than enriching the few.

The “national” question and “national” independence is fundamental to the African Revolution. “But while it would not be harmful to recognize the emergence of the racial factor in the revolutionary struggle, it must not be allowed to confuse or obscure the fundamental issue of socialist Revolution, which is the class struggle. . . Socialism can only be achieved through class struggle.” (Kwame Nkrumah, Class Struggle in Africa, page 83-84). For Africa, genuine independence will not be realized short of a Unified Socialist Africa.

Nkrumah’s publication of Class Struggle in Africa, Neo-colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism, and Consciencism, and the publication of Doctrine and Methods of the PDG, Women in Society, Strategy and Tactics of the Revolution, Pan-Africanism, Revolution, and Culture, For the Emancipation of Guinean Youth, and Africa on the Move by Ahmed Sekou Toure, provided the Pan-African Movement with an ideological, strategic, and organizational framework that enabled it to initiate a worldwide effort to lay the foundation for the emergence of this All-African political party.

For the past four decades, our program was and remains: Build the A-APRP(GC) / PRPAG! This revolutionary political program has been criticized by all manner of forces, internal and external, reformist and revolutionary; but it is the only correct and scientific program for this stage of the A-APRP(GC) / PRPAG’s development. History, not our competitors or enemies, will absolve or condemn!

Nkrumah and Toure properly analyzed that the motive force of the African Revolution are the Masses of workers, and peasants in alliance with the revolutionary intelligentsia, especially revolutionary youth/students and women. Given the political changes in the World today and based on our own revolutionary Pan-Africanist socialist work, study and struggle, the A-APRP(GC)/ PRPAG recognizes the need to recruit among all sectors of the People and to identify and involve Friends, Supporters and Allies of the African Revolution who seek collaboration with our Party today, and supports its revolutionary work. Friends, Supporters and Allies are key contributors to the revolutionary process whose sole and contributions we do not minimize. We will never be ungrateful to them for any support they give, and we will never betray the African and International Revolutions!

“Socialist revolutionaries seek a complete and fundamental transformation of society and the abolition of privileged classes…”

The A-APRP(GC) / PRPAG’s immediate task is to ideologically and organizationally develop, Pan-African revolutionary socialist Cadre, particularly African women and African youth, who are capable of and willing to politically educate and organize the Masses of oppressed African People worldwide. “Socialist revolutionaries seek a complete and fundamental transformation of society and the abolition of privileged classes . . .” (Kwame Nkrumah, Class Struggle in Africa, page 80).

Our Cadres are simply Pan-Africanist socialist revolutionaries, the new woman and man, the modest and humble woman and man, who Che and Nkrumah called for, who have committed themselves to African People’s revolutionary struggle against all forms of corruption, economic exploitation and political oppression. We have chosen class struggle, the liberation and political unification of Africa and the victory of Pan-Africanism over capitalism, neo-colonialism, zionism, and imperialism as our primary focus and life-long work. We have forsaken a life of leisure and cast our fate with the oppressed, exploited, and impoverished African Masses.

The A-APRP(GC) / PRPAG began to take concrete expression and form with the creation of its 1st Work-Study Circle in Conakry, Guinea, in 1968; and later in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, England, France and several countries in Africa. Since 1968, the A-APRP has recruited Africans born in over 33 countries in Africa and the African Diaspora. It has also developed a worldwide network of progressive and revolutionary allies, supporters and friends.  The A-APRP(GC) inherits and continues this revolutionary work. We seek to re-define, reconsolidate and expand this worldwide base.

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